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The basic process flow of the glass: Glass Knowledge

The basic process flow of the glass: Glass Knowledge



Manufacture of glass is as follows. Ingredients, melting, shaping, annealing and other processes.
1. Raw materials, weighed the various raw materials to the mixer, after mixing well, it has been designed according to the material of a single party. The main raw material of glass is as follows. Quartz sand, limestone, feldspar, soda ash, and boric acid and the like. 

2. Melting and excellent material which has been heated to a high temperature, the liquid glass without uniform cell is formed. This is a very complex physical and chemical reactions. It melts the glass in the performing melting furnace. The two major types, there is a furnace: 1, crucible furnace, glass frit contained in the crucible, is outside the heating of the crucible. Put in the only crucible, a small crucible furnace, can be large crucible of 20 or more. Crucible kiln is used in the production of optical glass and colored glass crucible kiln only now the production of gap type. Another, heating furnace in the kiln, is a glass melting tank material, heating the glass on top of the liquid fire. Mainly not only the most flame heating, which is known as the melting temperature ° C. melting furnace of glass in the year 1300 and 1600, current heating a small amount. Now, a continuous furnace production, a small furnace can be several meters, it can be a great big thing to more than 400 meters.
3. Formation, it is to convert a good melt the glass to have a solid article of a certain shape. First of all, glass, after the transition from a viscous liquid in a plastic state was transferred to a brittle solid. Forming method, to form the two categories, it can be divided into manual and mechanical shaping. 

A. You artificial formation.
(1) nickel - Select and chromium alloy torch, a group of mold side turn glass while blowing blowing. Mainly glass bubble, bottle, and formats, etc. (specified in the glasses) ball.
Vesicles (2) drawing blow while blowing both sides, later, another worker with a stick of the top plate, is mainly used to pull the production or rod the glass.
(3) Thereafter, the punch press, to select a group of glass is cut with scissors in order to fall into the mold, it was pressed to. So say primarily shaping cup, and a plate.
(4) Free pliers, scissors, will be formed in the tweezers and directly after the other tools and material pick who made crafts. 

B. mechanical formation.
Since shaping the artificial labor intensity, high temperature, because the conditions are bad, in order to free is in addition formed, it has mostly been replaced by mechanical form. There, blowing press, in addition to forming drawing machine
(1) thickness calendar method for the production of flat glass, cut glass, clip wire glass.
(2) casting, production of optical glass.
Glass tubes of a large diameter, is used for reactor fabrication of the device, and mass (3) Centrifugal casting method. This is injected into the molten glass in the mold which rotates at high speed, centrifugal force of the glass near the walls of the mold, the rotation continues until the glass hardened up. 

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(4) Sintering method for the production of foam glass. This is added to the glass powder foaming agent, and heated in a covered mold is formed of glass in the heat treatment, many of which, it closed the bubble is a good thermal insulation, sound insulation material.
In addition, vertical forming plate glass was cited law, the flat Rafah float. Float glass, is to be able to float in the flow of the molten metal (tin) surface of the glass sheet molding method, its main advantage is, (flat and smooth) high-quality glass, pulling speed, is a large output.
Four. Molding of Ani Rugarasu which has been subjected to change too severe temperature change and shape, this change in the glass, leaving the thermal stress. This will reduce the thermal stress 

strength and thermal stability of the glass products. If direct cooling, cooling process or subsequent storage, during transport and use (commonly known as a cold glass burst) can destroy itself. In order to eliminate the phenomenon of cold air, it must be annealed after the glass product molding. Annealing, in order to allow the value in either a thermal or a specific temperature range, and then slowly cool over time to eliminate or reduce the thermal stress of the glass. 

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Further, in order to increase the strength of some glass products, it can simply be processed. Including: reinforcement for physical thick glass (curing), table glass, the front glass of the automobile, chemical reinforcement (ion exchange), the watch cover glass, aviation glass. It is a compressive stress layer on the glass surface to enhance its strength to reinforce the principle.